Thursday, 28 December 2017

The Heathen Temple of Goodmanham

Many of my readers will be familiar with the account in Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People of the desecration and destruction of the heathen temple in Goodmanham in the East Riding of Yorkshire, part of the ancient Anglian kingdom of Northumbria. There are some aspects of this account which I wish to reflect upon in this article. I am indebted to the author of A Pagan Place blog. His article on Goodmanham is most interesting: http://pagan-place.blogspot.com/2011/09/pagan-sites-of-europe-remembered-13.html

The original name of this ancient village is Godmunddingaham, meaning "Homestead of the family or followers of a man called Godmund." (A Dictionary of English Place-Names by A.D. Mills, 1991) The first question which springs to mind is who was Godmund and what was his position? One explanation is that Godmund is derived from the Old Norse name Gudmund, meaning 'protected by god'. However a Norse origin does not make any sense. Bede was writing in the 8th century about an event which occurred in the year 627 CE, well before any Danish colonisation. However it should be remembered that the Angles did come from the same area as the Danes. Also we must ponder whether the 'god' referred to is the name if the Christian god or the heathen English one, probably Woden? If Goodmanham was an important temple site which it appears to have been then it may very well be a reference to Woden. However we do not know for certain what the name of this village was in 627 CE, only what it was called at the time of Bede writing his account in about 731 CE. It is quite possible, maybe even probable that the name of the village was changed after the destruction of the temple.

Here is the appropriate text regarding the event:

"THE king, hearing these words, answered, that he was both willing and bound to receive the faith which he taught; but that he would confer about it with his principal friends and counsellers, to the end that if they also were of his opinion, they might all. together be cleansed in Christ the Fountain of Life. Paulinus consenting, the king did as he said; for, holding a council with the wise men, he asked of every one in particular what he thought of the new doctrine, and the new worship that was preached? To which the chief of. his own priests, Coifi, immediately answered, "O king, consider what this is which is now preached to us; for I verily declare to you, that the religion which we have hitherto professed has, as far as I can learn, no virtue in it. For none of your people has applied himself more diligently to the worship of our gods than I; and yet there are many who receive greater favours from you, and are more preferred than I, and are more prosperous in all their undertakings. Now if the gods were good for any thing, they would rather forward me, who have been more careful to serve them. It remains, therefore, that if upon examination you find those new doctrines, which are now preached to us, better and more efficacious, we immediately receive them without any delay."
Another of the king's chief men, approving of his words and exhortations, presently added: "The present life of man, O king, seems to me, in comparison of that time which is unknown to us, like to the swift flight of a sparrow through the room wherein you sit at supper in winter, with your commanders and ministers, and a good fire in the midst, whilst the storms of rain and snow prevail abroad; the sparrow, I say, flying in at one door, and immediately out at another, whilst he. is within, is safe from the wintry storm; but after a short space of fair weather, he immediately vanishes out of your sight, into the dark winter from which he had emerged. So this life of man appears for a short space, but of what went before, or what is to follow, we are utterly ignorant. If, therefore, this new doctrine contains something more certain, it seems justly to deserve to be followed." The other elders and king's councillors, by Divine inspiration, spoke to the same effect.
But Coifi added, that he wished more attentively to bear Paulinus discourse concerning the God whom he preached; which he having by the king's command performed, Coifi, hearing his words, cried out, "I have long since been sensible that there was nothing in that which we worshipped; because the more diligently I sought after truth in that worship, the less I found it. But now I freely confess, that such truth evidently appears in this preaching as can confer on us the gifts of life, of salvation, and of eternal happiness. For which reason I advise, O king, that we instantly abjure and set fire to those temples and altars which we have consecrated without reaping any benefit from them." In short, the king publicly gave his licence to Paulinus to preach the Gospel, and renouncing idolatry, declared that he received the faith of Christ: and then he inquired of the high priest who should first profane the altars and temples of their idols, with the enclosures that were about them, he answered, "I; for who can more properly than myself destroy those things which I worshipped through ignorance, for an example to all others, through the wisdom which has been given me by the true God?" Then immediately, in contempt of his former superstitions, he desired the king to furnish him with arms and a stallion; and mounting the same, he set out to destroy the idols; for it was not lawful before for the high priest either to carry arms, or to ride on any but a mare. Having, therefore, girt a sword about him, with a spear in his hand, he mounted the king's stallion and proceeded to the idols. The multitude, beholding it, concluded he was distracted; but he lost no time, for as soon as he drew near the temple he profaned the same, casting into it the spear which he held; and rejoicing in the knowledge of the worship of the true God, he commanded his companions to destroy the temple, with all its enclosures, by fire. This place where the idols were is still shown, not far from York, to the eastward, beyond the river Derwent, and is now called Godmundinghan, where the high priest, by the inspiration of the true God, profaned and destroyed the altars which he had himself consecrated."

King Edwin (c. 586-632/633 CE) was king of the sub-kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira which later became unified into the kingdom of Northumbria. It was at this very time-627 CE that Edwin converted to Christianity and was baptised. What a coincidence therefore that at this time the High Priest Coifi decides to renounce his ancestral Gods and adopt the Christian religion. His real motive had nothing to do with a true spiritual revelation but was solely due to his realisation that a heathen High Priest would not fare well under a Christian king. So we see here the treason not only of Edwin, the secular ruler but Coifi, the religious reader. Like all conversions of the Germanic peoples they were from the top down, not genuine and subsequently enforced by violence. One can only speculate but it is highly probably that Coifi entered the Christian priesthood after his renunciation of the true Gods. Bede seeks to imply that Edwin's counsellors, his Witan of which Coifi was a member persuaded him to adopt the Christian religion but it is clear to me from the opening sentence that Edwin already had this as his intention and Coifi knowing 'which way the wind was blowing' took advantage of this. Bede being a Christian propagandist obviously has put his own 'spin' on the account which after 100 years became distorted anyway! Even Bede's own words make it clear what Coifi's motivation was-material gain!

It is more than likely that the church in Goodmanham, All Hallows was built upon the site of the heathen temple but contrary to what some allege it was not built from the materials of the temple. As most of my readers will be aware the Anglo-Saxons did not build temples of stone. All their structures were built of wood. The only part of the temple which would have been of stone is the altar. To the best of my knowledge no archaeological excavations have been conducted in the precincts of the church.

Bede makes it clear that Coifi was a High Priest and this implies that there was an organised priesthood. Some commentators claim that the Germanic peoples did not have an organised priesthood but this thinking is based on the faulty claims of Caesar in his De Bello Gallico:

"The customs of the Germans are very different from those of the Gauls. They have no druids to preside over religious matters, nor do they concern themselves with sacrifices." (Sixth Book, paragraph 21, translation by Carolyn Hammond) 

We know that this was not the case as Tacitus writing in the following century makes reference to a Germanic priesthood. Both animal and human sacrifices were carried out by the Germans. It may be that Caesar intended to say that the priesthood of the Germans was not as structured as that of the Druids of Gaul but a priesthood it never the less was.

It is generally considered that the temple at Goodmanham was devoted to Woden but this is mere guesswork as Bede does not mention Woden or the name of any other Germanic God in the quoted passage above and generally Germanic temples were devoted to more than one deity. It is significant though that Coifi cast a spear into the temple in order to desecrate it. Weapons were forbidden in the sacred gatherings of the Teutons and Coifi through his actions makes this clear just as the priesthood was forbidden to bear arms and I note, to ride a stallion although permitted to ride a mare. By riding a stallion and bearing arms he soiled his office and by casting the spear into the temple he committed an act of blasphemy. The spear is of course the sacred weapon of Woden and the horse one of his totemic beasts so by riding a stallion and by using this type of weapon to commit his act of sacrilege it is assumed by some that this temple was devoted to Woden which may of course have been the case but we cannot be sure.

Another thing that we can glean from Bede's words is that the temple contained sacred images or 'idols' to use Bede's terminology and this is something which we should therefore encourage in our own rites and to use on our own altars. The temple appeared to have more than one altar and as this was the location of the High Priest it may have had a similar status and significance as the temple at Old Uppsala in Sweden. The next time that Goodmanham is mentioned is in the Domesday Book, commissioned by William the Conqueror. A sacred well is situated near the church and is dedicated to St. Helena, the mother of the Emperor Constantine the Great. It is more than likely that this well like so many others in England was in itself once a sacred heathen shrine.

Saturday, 2 December 2017

The Old Saxon Baptismal Vow-Saxon or Franconian?

This article should be read in conjunction with Saxnot, Tribal God and Divine Ancestor of the Saxons
The vow is repeated below with its modern English translation:Ol
Old Saxon

End ec forsacho allum dioboles uuercum and uuordum, Thunaer ende Uuôden ende Saxnôte ende allum thêm unholdum thê hira genôtas sint.

Modern English

I renounce all the deeds and words of the devil, Thunaer, Wōden and Saxnōt, and all those fiends that are their companions.

The language of The Old Saxon Baptismal Vow is disputed by scholars. Dutch scholars, some of whom may be more influenced by Dutch nationalism rather than scholarly objectivity argue that the language is not Old Saxon (Old Low German) but  Old Franconian (Old Dutch) and for this reason it is also (by Dutch scholars) called the Utrecht Baptismal Vow. The more honest (and objective) position to take (in my view) is to state that we simply do not know if it is Saxon or Franconian due to the great similarities between these two West Germanic languages. One only has to consider the similarities between modern Dutch and Platt Deutsch (which my Saxon mother was able to understand) and realise that the boundaries between languages or dialects is often very narrow. I would add that the manuscript was found not in the Netherlands but in the monastery library at Mainz in Germany although this is not definitive evidence that it is German in origin of course.

The identity of Saxnot is also a matter of dispute as Jacob Grimm considered that it was an alternative and Saxon name for the God Zio (Tiu/Tyr) whilst Rudolf Simek argues an identification with the God Yngvi Fro. My own view is that He is a separate God and moreover that He was a tribal God of the Saxons. His name appears in the divine ancestry of the Kings of Essex as a son of Woden. Apparently earlier version of this genealogy do not include Woden and have instead Saxnot at its head. The issue of the Anglo-Saxon royal genealogies is worthy of a study in their own right. One could argue that if this vow were Franconian in origin then why does it feature an obviously SAXON God?

Monday, 27 November 2017

The Goat and its Relationship to the Northern European Thunder God

I have spent some time recently reflecting on the meaning and importance of the goat in relation to the Indo-European Thunder God. My article from 2013 is particularly relevant to this subject: The Goat, an Indo-European Solar Symbol

Misinformed bloggers on mythology would cite the evidence of Thor's goats in the Eddas as an indication of His 'lowly' status amongst the Aesir, particularly when compared to Odin. Believe it or not I have seen these foolish comments made by charlatans dabbling in mythology who have probably never even read the Eddas!

Most of my regular readers will know that I give great primacy to Thunor/Thunar/Thonar/Thor for He is more than likely the most ancient of our Germanic deities and unlike any other has close mythological cognates with the Baltic, Slavic, Celtic and Finno-Ugric peoples. However He is more often than not compared unfavourably with Odin but these who make such comparisons lack genuine understanding not only of our historical and sacred writings but of the very essence of the God Himself. I do not wish to digress further as this issue alone deserves a separate article and I wish to focus here on the goat and its significant relationship to the Thunder God amongst northern Europeans.

We know from both the Eddas that Thor's chariot was pulled by two goats. The Younger Edda gives the names of these goats:
"Thor has two goats whose names are Tanngniost and Tanngrisnir, and a chariot that he drives in, and the goats draw the chariot. From this he is known as Oku-Thor." (Gylfaginning, Faulkes translation)
Rudolf Simek defines Oku-Thor as 'driving Thor':
"He derives the name aka 'to drive a chariot', as Thor does indeed drive a chariot pulled by two he-goats; the origin of the idea of Thor's chariot driving could be the rumbling noise of thunder." (Dictionary of Northern Mythology
There is a close resemblance between Oku and the name of the Finnish Thunder God Ucco although Simek discounts this as an explanation of the term, arguing that the flow of cultural transfer tends to be from the Germanic to the Finno-Ugric peoples but that is not in my opinion a sufficient argument for ruling it out altogether! Ucco or Ukko is derived from the Finnish terms for 'old man' and 'grandfather'. Ukko may originally have been called Perkele, a Baltic term. Like Thor Ukko possessed a Hammer, called Ukonvasar, 'hammer of Ukko'. Sometimes His weapon is depicted as an axe and called Ukonkirves

Heathen Finns like their Germanic, Baltic and Slavic counterparts would wear hammer or axe shaped amulets. The Sami had a similar deity, Horagelles whose name is similar in meaning to Ukko: 'grandfather' or 'great grandfather'. Interestingly the Sami also called this deity Thoron and even Thor!

It is natural that our ancestors conceived of the rumbling thunder as the sound of a chariot being driven across the sky but we must ask ourselves why it was pulled by goats rather than say horses? Both the Germanic Thunder God and the Balto-Slavic equivalents feature a chariot being pulled by goats:

Perkunas. Lithuanian. The thunder god, the equivalent in LITHUANIA of PERKONS, PERKONIS, PERUN and PYERUN. Perkunas was perceived as a vigorous red-bearded man brandishing an axe who was drawn rattling, across the sky in a chariot drawn by a billy goat. "(European Myth & Legend, Mike Dixon-Kennedy, 1997)

The chariot of Perkunas is sometimes pictured as pulled by horses but often by goats, one black and one white which is a very obvious hint of solar symbolism. The goat is of course a solar symbol but the presence of both black and white ones strengthen this association. Additionally the male goat is a symbol of masculine virility, potency and vigour. The German Donar is particularly associated with mountains, many being named after Him. The Donnersberg in the Rheinland-Pfalz is a particularly well known example. The goat is also an animal which is at home in mountainous regions and its milk and meat would have formed a staple part of our ancestors' daily diet.

It is clear from Gylfaginning that Thor regarded His goats Tanngrisnir ('teeth barer') and Tanngnostr ('teeth grinder') as sacred due to the anger which He displayed when He discovered that Thjalfi had split the thighbone of one of the goats causing it to become lame. Scholars such as Simek point out that the names of the goats "are surely an invention and probably from Snorri himself as they are nowhere to be found except in Gylfaginning 20 and the thulur." The fact that the names are not mentioned in the Elder Edda does not make them an 'invention'. Snorri could have obtained his information from other sources including oral tradition but regardless of whether he 'invented' the names or not the fact remains that the goat has a long association with the northern European Thunder God as is evidenced from Slavic and Baltic sources. It is relevant for me to point out at this point that the Baltic mythology contains material so ancient that it can be traced back to Proto-Indo-European times.

Sunday, 5 November 2017

The Rúnatal-an Observation

We know from a section of the Hávamál  (Sayings of the High One) from the Elder/Poetic Edda that Odin gained the Runes or knowledge of them via an act of self sacrifice. This section of the Havamal is called the Rúnatal:

"I know that I hung on a windy tree
           nine long nights,

          wounded with a spear, dedicated to Odin,

          myself to myself,

         on that tree of which no man knows

         from where its roots run.

         No bread did they give me nor a drink from a horn,

         downwards I peered;

         I took up the runes, screaming I took them,

         then I fell back from there. (verses 138-139, Larrington translation)

A more poetic yet older translation by Benjamin Thorpe translates the Old Norse as:

"I know that I hung, on a wind-rocked tree, nine whole nights, with a spear wounded, and to Odin offered, myself to myself; on that tree, of which no one knows from what root it springs.

         "Bread no one gave me, nor a horn of drink, downward I peered, to runes applied myself,                    wailing learnt them, then fell down thence." (verses 140-141)

As I am sure that my readers will agree the Thorpe translation being older is more poetic but it needs to be borne in mind that newer translations tend to be more accurate. Without studying the relevant passages in the original Old Norse I cannot at this stage comment on whether the version of this passage by Carolyne Larrington is more accurate. The translations though are essentially the same apart from one important point. Thorpe states Odin "applied" Himself to the Runes and "wailing learnt them". By contrast Larrington does not say that Odin learned the Runes only that He "took them".

The translation of the second verse by Hollander:

"Neither horn they upheld nor handed me bread;
I looked below me-
aloud I cried-
caught up the runes, caught them up wailing,
thence to the ground fell again."

Again, no reference to learning the Runes. The translation by Bray:

"None refreshed me ever with food or drink,
I peered right down in the deep;
crying aloud I lifted the Runes
then back I fell from thence."

The translation by Bellows:

"None made me happy with loaf or horn,
And there below I looked;
I took up the runes, shrieking I took them,
And forthwith back I fell."

The translation by Terry:

"They brought me no bread, no horn to drink from,
I gazed towards the ground.
Crying aloud, I caught up runes;
finally I fell."

The translation by Auden:

"They gave me no bread,
They gave me no mead,
I looked down;
with a loud cry
I took up runes;
from that tree I fell."

And finally the translation by Chisholm:

They dealt me no bread, nor drinking horn.
I looked down, I drew up the runes,
screaming I took them up,
and fell back from there. 

Out of the 8 translations the one by Thorpe is the only one which makes reference to 'learning' the Runes but that fact of course does not in itself make Thorpe's translation of the verse incorrect. When translating from ancient languages into a modern one the translator often does not know the exact meaning or the nuance of the word he is translating and just as in modern English a word with identical or similar spelling can have a radically different meaning. Despite Thorpe being 'out on a limb' with this verse it is his translation which I feel captures the essence of it best! It is quite clear that Odin after having gained the Runes would by necessity have had to learn and interpret them. The Runes did not originate with Odin but He discovered or more likely rediscovered them and then gave this knowledge to man for immediately after the Rúnatal we have the Ljóðatal which goes on to list 18 Rune charms or songs.

Readers of this article are advised to also read Odin on the World Tree

Sunday, 30 April 2017

Some Thoughts on Rig of the Rigsthula

The Rigsthula is one of the most important sacred documents that has survived the onslaught of xtianity in the Germanic realms and I make no apology therefore in returning to it time and time again for there is still much to be gleaned and learned from this poem found in the Elder or Poetic Edda.

The God Rig is credited with the formation of the Germanic caste system but this should not be confused with the creation of man which is dealt with as a separate event in both the Elder Edda and the Younger or Prose Edda. Rig's intention is to create an order of caste within Germanic society by the mixing of divine blood with that of mortal man. Of course we know that the caste system is to be found throughout the Aryan world. The Rigsthula is simply an account based on how the Germanic peoples thought of how the caste system came into being.

One question that we are faced with straight away is the identity of Rig and this is something which I have long pondered for several years now. The Rigsthula is prefaced with the following statement:

"People say in the old stories that one of the Aesir, who was called Heimdall, went on a journey, and as he went along the sea-shore somewhere he came to a household and he called himself Rig." (Carolyne Larrington translation)

It would seem from this that the Lay of Rig was already well known but it is possible that the writer of the lay may have repeated a mistake regarding the identification of Rig with Heimdall. Even  Miss Larrington states in her notes that "The identification of Heimdall with Rig is not absolutely secure, since it is based only on the prose introduction, but the beginning of the Seeress's Prophecy, asking for attention from all 'the offspring of Heimdall', seems to suggest that the god did have some connection with the creation of mankind."

Rig is said to be "derived from the Irish ri (rig in other cases) meaning 'king'." Why this term should be derived from an Irish source we can only speculate but I will leave discussion of that issue for another day. The important point to grasp is that the term is said to mean 'king' and this position was not Heimdall's but Odin's. Let us visit the line in question from the Voluspa in the Elder Edda:

"Attention I ask from all the sacred people, greater and lesser, the offspring of Heimdall;" (verse 1, Larrington translation)

Miss Larrington in her notes states that the 'sacred people' are the Gods but this is not how I read the line in its English translation. It appears to be referring to the 'offspring of Heimdall' as the 'sacred people' rather than the Gods and this makes sense when we consider that these people are divine offspring. In fact the translation of this verse by Benjamin Thorpe supports my contention:

"For silence I pray all sacred children, great and small, sons of Heimdall,"

So it is clear then that it is the men and women who are descended from Rig are 'sacred' but without studying the original Old Norse (something which I intend to do) I cannot be categoric in this. It is simply my initial theory.

From my understanding the introduction to the Rigsthula may have been written 100 years or so later than the poem itself by way of providing some insight into who Rig may be and if this is the case it makes the contention that Rig is Heimdall stand on a much faultier basis. Rudolf Simek seems to share the view that I hold:

"It is extremely doubtful whether Rigr can be identified with the god Heimdall, as occurs in the prose introduction added later to the lay. The picture of a god wandering about and spreading the knowledge of the runes would appear to fit Odin more than Heimdall." (Dictionary of Northern Mythology

My readers will note that Professor Simek states that the prose introduction was added later to the lay thus making it seem somewhat unreliable in my opinion. The whole picture of a wandering God who teaches runes to His son Jarl fits better with the qualities of Odin Himself who is known as The Wanderer and is the High Lord of the runes. Unlike Heimdall He is also the rig, the king of the Gods. Most ancient Germanic royal houses included Odin or Woden in their ancestry. Heimdall never appears in this way. Finally the main function of Heimdall is to guard Bifrost, the Rainbow Bridge. For Heimdall to leave His post for extended periods of time thus leaving Asgard vulnerable to attack does not make an iota of sense to me.

Saturday, 29 April 2017

The Celtic Caste System, a Comparison with the Germanic

On this blog and on my Aryan Myth and Metahistory blog I have written many times about different aspects of either the Aryan or Germanic caste systems. What I propose to do in this article is focus particularly on the Celtic caste system and discuss where it differs from the Germanic one.

As far as the structure of the Celtic caste system is concerned it would appear that it closely followed the original Aryan one:

Irish caste system

Druids (including Ovates and Bards)-priestly caste

Flaith-noble/warrior caste

Bo aire-"cow herds"-producer caste

Gallic caste system


Equites (Knights)


I would like to make two points here. Firstly my readers will note the use of the term aire which has exactly the same meaning as the term Arya or Aryan. This puts paid to the lie of many 'academics' that our European ancestors did not use this term to describe themselves. Peter Berresford Ellis writing in The Ancient World of the Celts compares certain Old Irish and Sanskrit terms. The Sanskrit Arya is translated as 'freeman' and the Old Irish aire as 'noble'. In the Germanic caste system the noble was the Jarl caste whilst the freeman was the Karl caste, the yeoman (or artisan) in other words.  I have proved before this term is not limited to the Iranians or Indo-Aryans. See http://aryan-myth-and-metahistory.blogspot.co.uk/2008/12/aryan-term-not-confined-to-indo.html Indeed there is also a close connection between the Aryans and agriculture. The Aryan was not just a warrior but a farmer and he revolutionised agriculture by the invention of the plough. The English yeoman of the late Middle Ages is the epitome of this. See http://aryan-myth-and-metahistory.blogspot.co.uk/2014/06/the-aryans-and-farmer-caste.html The second point that I wish to make is that the above mentioned caste system is typical of Ireland but Caesar writing in his De bello Gallica stresses the importance of the two highest castes:

“In the whole of Gaul two types of men are counted as being of worth and distinction. The ordinary people are considered almost as slaves: they dare do nothing on their own account and are not called to counsels.
“Of the two types of men of distinction, however, the first is made up of the druids, and the other of the knights.” (Book 6.13, Carolyn Hammond translation)

If Caesar is correct in his analysis then this may be an indication that the Celtic tribes of Gaul were more warlike due to the unsettled nature of the times with the threat that they faced from Rome. This situation would have increased the importance of the warrior caste whilst Ireland was largely free from conflict from external enemies and so the dominance of the two highest castes was not so evident. It would appear that there was a fair degree of mobility between the priestly and warrior castes of the Gauls but less so between these two castes and the third caste although it was also possible to rise from this caste to either of the other two but it took several generations for this position to be consolidated and to be fully recognised.

The term bo aire literally means cattle chief and cattle were regarded as an indication of wealth in both Celtic and Germanic societies and this is of course reflected in the Fehu/Feoh/Fe rune, meaning cattle or livestock as a  form of mobile wealth. Eventually land became an indicator of wealth as the tribes became more settled. This was of course before the introduction of 'money'.

The ancient Brehon Laws of Ireland date back to the Iron Age and they developed from oral laws as did the Germanic legal systems. It is said that they have their foundation in Proto-Indo-European or Aryan times. The Brehons were judges or arbiters of the law. The Brehon Laws describe the structure of Irish society and show that there were five main classes of people:

Kings of various grades from tribal Kings to the High King.

Nobles (which included Kings)

Non-Noble Freemen with property

Non-Noble Freemen without property or with little property

The Non-Free

The first three classes were known as 'privileged' and known as an aire. The nobility held land which they owned and thus were the aristocracy. Another term for this type of noble or chief was Flaith. The Freeman with property although not classed as a noble was nevertheless an aire. This would seem to equate to both the gentry and the yeomanry of late mediaeval England. The bo aire was the equivalent of the English yeoman or franklin as I have said previously. A wealthier bo aire could rise to the lowest rank of noble. The Freeman with little or no property were termed ceile or producers. The Freeman whether he be the owner of property or not would have equated to the Karl caste of the Germanic system. Craftsmen or artisans were also regarded as Freemen of the lower rank. The Non-Free were not all slaves and some could own small plots of land for subsistence purposes and they would have equated to the Thrall caste of the Germanic system. The Druids are not represented in the structure outlined in the Brehon Laws as this concerned purely the structure of lay society, not priestly.

It is clear that the Kings and Nobles equate to the Jarl caste whilst the Freemen of both classes equate to the Karl caste and the Non-Free the Thrall caste, thus reconciling the system in the Brehon Laws to the tripartite Indo-European system. If one considers that the Non-Free as a type of Sudra caste fall outside of the Indo-European tripartite structure then what we have is as follows:

Druids-priestly caste

Nobles (including Kings)-warrior caste

Freemen (farmers, craftsmen with or without property)

Non-Free-slaves and others of low standing falling outside of the aire and equate to the Indian Sudras.

The Germanic system does not have a separate priestly caste as this function was subsumed by the noble caste and we see the two functions of the Jarl caste divided into soverignity (Tyr) and magic-religion (Odin) and thus the Thralls which would not have been regarded as aire by the Irish are formed into the third caste, the other two moving up one level to replace the lost priestly one. I have already discussed the reason for this in http://celto-germanic.blogspot.co.uk/2014/04/the-germanic-caste-system-reappraisal.html

Saturday, 25 March 2017

Woden Remembered in German Harvest Incantations

Long after our ancestors ceased to worship the deities of our folk their remembrance lingered on in many rural folk customs. I stress here, rural folk customs for it is in the rural villages and smaller towns that our ancient customs survived the longest. The cities and larger towns were mainly the product of people being drawn into larger urban centres from the time of the Industrial Revolution, seeking employment. After 2 or 3 generations many people forgot who their ancestors were. Thus they generally lack any real continuity. As an aside I remark here that those of us who have ancestry rooted in rural areas are more likely to trace our ancestry back to the 1400s and 1500s than those whose ancestors came from larger urban centres. This causes the descendants  unfortunately to 'forget' their ancestors, having no real idea where they came from although this happily can be remedied in part by the latest autosomal DNA testing which can identify ethnic origins and even which regions of the British Isles your ancestors came from to 10 generations back (great great great great great great great great grandparents-1024 lines of descent!). Thus the larger towns and cities have always been the enemy of our folk.

Up until fairly recent times (19th century) the Gods were still being remembered in songs and folk customs, usually related to the changing seasons of the year. There are some very interesting examples referred to by Jacob Grimm in his Teutonic Mythology volume 1. In Mecklenburg Grimm tells us of a certain formula or incantation which was spoken over the last sheaf of harvest:
"Wode, hale (fetch) dinem rosse nu voder,
            nu distil unde dorn,

            tom andern jar beter korn!"

This translates as "Wode, fetch now food for your horse!" An alternative version of this incantation from the same region is:

"Wode, Wode,
            hal dinen rosse nu voder,

            nu distel un dorn,

            aechter jar beter korn!"

This is written in a German dialect and thus not easy to translate but I believe that it equates to "Wode, Wode, fetch now food for your horse, now thistle and thorn, avoid the better corn!"

"He adds, that at the squires' mansions, when the rye is all cut, there is Wodel-beer served out to the mowers; no one weeds flax on a Wodenstag, lest Woden's horse should trample the seeds; from Christmas to Twelth-day they will not spin, nor leave any flax on the distaff, and to the question why? they answer, Wode is galloping across. We are expressly told, this wild hunter Wode rides a white horse."

Grimm also tells us that in Schaumburg the mowers go out in teams of either 12, 16 or 20 scythes. They so arrange it that on the very last day of harvest they all finish at the same time:
"or some leave a strip standing which they can cut down at a stroke the last thing, or they merely pass their scythes over the stubble, pretending there is still some left to sow. At the last stroke of the scythe they raise their implements aloft, plant them upright, and beat the blades three times with the strop. Each spills on the field a little of the drink he has, whether beer, brandy, or milk, then drinks himself, while they wave their hats, beat their scythes three times, and cry aloud Wold, Wold, Wold! and the women knock all the crumbs out of their baskets on the stubble. They march home shouting and singing. Fifty years ago a song was in use, which has now died out, but whose first strophe ran thus:

         'Wold, Wold, Wold!
          haevenhuene weit wat schuet,
          juemm hei dal van heaven suet.'

          Vulle kruken un sangen haet hei,
           upen holte waesst (grows) manigerlei:
           hei is nig barn un wert nig old.
           Wold, Wold, Wold!

This translates as:

“Wôld, Wôld, Wôld”!
H“Wôld, Wôld, Wôld”!
Heaven’s giant knows what happens,
He, looking down from heaven,
Providing full jugs and sheaves.
Many a plant grows in the woods.
He is not born and grows not old.’s g
            “Wôld, Wôld, Wôld”!

Grimm goes on to state that if the ceremony is omitted then the next year will bring bad crops of hay and corn. It is interesting that here Woden is referred to as "Heaven's giant" which accords with a very ancient conception of Woden as Wod, a storm giant.
"The primitive conception of Odin is the German storm giant Wode, leader of the 'wild army', O.H.G. Wuotis-her, i.e. the procession of the homeless dead through the air. The development Woden raises the name on to the same level as royal titles like Gothic thiudans and Scandinavia drottinn. (page 227, Our Forefathers the Gothonic Nations Volume 1, Gudmund Schuette)

 "The German Wode=O.N. Odr is a storm giant, the Wild Huntsman and Leader of the Host of the Dead who is finally exalted to the chief god under the name of Woden, Odin." (Page 216)
Also from Schaumburg he states that:

"On the lake of Steinhude, the lads from the village of Steinhude go every autumn after harvest, to a hill named Heidenhuegel, light a fire on it, and when it blazes high, wave their hats and cry Wauden, Wauden!" 

Wednesday, 4 January 2017

Thunor and Irmin Suggested as Ancestors of the Thuringii

There may be an association between the God Thunor and the ancient Germanic tribe of the Thuringii and certainly there has been some speculation about this by scholars in the past. Like all Germanic tribes they did of course wander over Germania but they finally settled in the area of Germany now known as Thuringia or Thüringen to give it its German name. This modern German state or Land borders Lower Saxony or Niedersachsen in the Harz Mountains.

The word Thuringii consists of 2 elements, Thur and ing. This would seem to suggest that those who called themselves Thuringii were the sons of Thur, Thor or Thunor. This idea has been subject to a certain amount of speculation by German scholars in the 19th century and has been repeated by more recent scholars such as Frithjof Sielaff and others (see The Baiuvarri and Thuringi: An Ethnographic Perspective, 2014 by Janine Fries-Knoblach and Heiko Steuer).

The earliest historically testifiable king of the Thuringii is Bisinius (450-500), the 5th and last one Frisud who lived about 100 years later. After this the Thuringii were conquered by the Franks who appointed dukes to govern them. However the legendary history of the rulers of the Thuringii stretches further back than Bisinius. Predecessors appear such as Merwig II, Weldelphus, Merwig I, Erpes, Hoger, Thurus and Irmin. I don't know how much credence should be given to this information as it is difficult to track down sources but it is interesting that at the head of the legendary ancestry of Bisinius, the first historically identifiable king, we have the God Irmin and Thunor is reckoned as His son, from which the Thuringii allegedly derive their name. This would therefore suggest that they belonged to the Irminone division of Germanic tribes or they were descended from earlier tribes that belonged to this division.