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Saturday, 26 April 2014

The Antiquity and Origins of the Term 'Teuton'


The Celtic God Teutates was equated by the Romans with their own Mars, a war deity and Mars in turn was associated with the Germanic *Tiwaz. My article The Celtic God Teutates published on this blog on 25/1/09 goes into more detail about this deity. What I would like to do here is develop this link further.

As Jaan Puhvel establishes in his Comparative Mythology "Teutates (Toutates, Totates, Tutates) is derived from Proto-Indo-European *tewta" and this means 'people'. The Old Irish tuatha and the Gothic thiuda are derived from this so this means that the deity was originally common to both the Celtic and Teutonic peoples, reaching back into a shared past but after Proto-Indo-European times. It is in other words an ancient concept. Both the Teutons and the Celts had a tendency to name themselves after various Gods who were considered to be the fathers and founders of their tribes.

In my article Tuisto, the God *Tiwaz published on 7/4/14 I explored the connection between the ancient deity referred to in Tacitus' Germania, Tuisto and *Tiwaz.

"If the earthborn Tuisco, the ancestral god of our nation, stands (as Zeuss p.72 has acutely suggested) for Tivisco, Tiusco, it shews on its very face the meaning of a divine heavenly being, leaving it an open question whether we will choose to understand it of Wuotan or any other god, barring always Tius himself, from whom it is derived." (Teutonic Mythology Volume 1, Jacob Grimm)

The Teutonic peoples never referred to themselves as 'German' or 'Germanic'. This is an alien term conferred on them by the Romans. Instead they referred to themselves either by their tribal names or sometimes collectively as Teutons. This name was originally the possession of one particular tribe called the Teutones or Teutoni, Latin for 'Teutons'. In 105BCE Teutobad, the King of the Teutones achieved victory over the Romans in the Battle of Aurosio.

The terms Dutch and Deutsch are derived from the Proto-Germanic *Þeudiskaz (meaning 'of the people', ie 'folk'), the root of Dutch, Deutsch and Teuton. This is also the meaning of  Old English þeod, the Lithuanian tauta and the Old Irish tuath. In turn  *Þeudiskaz is derived from the Proto-Indo-European *teuta ('people'). The children of Tuisto derived their collective name from Him:

 "In ancient lays, their only type of historical tradition, they celebrate Tuisto, a god brought forth from the earth. They attribute to him a son, Mannus, the source and founder of their people, and to Mannus three sons, from whose names those nearest the Ocean are called Ingvaeones, those in the middle Herminones, and the rest Istvaeones. Some people, inasmuch as antiquity gives free reign to speculation, maintain that there were more sons born from the god and hence more tribal designations- Marsi, Gambrivii, Suebi, and Vandilii- and that those names are genuine and ancient."(Germania 2.2, Tacitus, J.B. Rives translation)

"In the traditional songs which form their only record of the past the Germans celebrate an earth-born god called Tuisto. His son Mannus is supposed to be the fountain-head of their race and himself to have begotten three sons who gave their names to three groups of tribes- the Ingaevones, nearest the sea; the Herminones, in the interior; and the Istaevones, who comprise all the rest. Some authorities, with the freedom of conjecture permitted by remote antiquity, assert that Tuisto had numerous descendants and mention more tribal groups such as Marsi, Gambrivii, Suebi, and Vandilii-names which affirm to be both genuine and ancient." (H. Mattingley translation, revised by S.A. Handford.)

There is also a conceptual link between Teuton (people/folk) and Arya. In Old Irish Arya is Airya and means 'free man'. In Germanic society one was not a man unless he was free, free to carry weapons and vote in the All Thing that is. The term 'Aryan' has been reconstructed by Professor J. P. Mallory from the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) root heryos meaning "member of one's own group". Mallory (2006) further adds that:
"The evidence suggests that the word was, at least, initially, one that denoted one who belongs to the community in contrast to an outsider". (J.B. Mallory and D.Q. Adams in The Oxford Introduction To Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World)


This is further evidence for the antiquity of *Tiwaz and His ancient racial relationship with the Germanic and closely related northern Indo-European peoples.


Sunday, 13 April 2014

The Germanic Caste System: A Reappraisal



I have in the past discussed the Germanic and Aryan caste systems on this and other blogs and this article is intended to add to that discussion.

The Rigsthula of the Elder or Poetic Edda sets out this caste system in very clear terms. First of all it should be noted that Heimdall is considered by many but not all scholars to be the Rig referred to in the text:

"People say in the old stories that one of the Aesir, who was called Heimdall, went on a journey, and as he went along the sea-shore somewhere he came to a household and he called himself Rig. This poem is about that story." (Rigsthula, Larrington translation)

That is the header to the poem. Nowhere else in the poem is Heimdall referred to which has caused some to question Rig's actual identity. As a matter of interest Rig is derived from the Irish ri meaning 'king'. This supposed Celtic connection is intriguing. However elsewhere in the Elder Edda Heimdall is referred to as the father of man, or Germanic man, to be more precise.

"Attention I ask from all sacred people, greater and lesser, the offspring of Heimdall," (Voluspa 1.2, Larrington translation)

Rudolf Simek in his Dictionary of Northern Mythology takes a different view. He is more inclined to associate Rig with Odin:

"The picture of the the god who wanders about under a pseudonym visiting people and finally conveying the knowledge of the runes to a chosen one among them fits better with Odin who was probabally originally meant by Rigr."

It is of course Odin, rather than Heimdall who is noted to be the lord of the Runes. The Rigsthula does refer to the youngest son of Jarl, Kon as being taught the Runes by Rig. If we accept the Irish connection to Rig's name, then this God should be regarded as a king among the Gods and only Odin fits that description. If Odin then is the progenitor of the three castes then He is not only the God of the nobles as is emphasised in the genealogy of Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian kings but He is truly the All Father and as ordinary people we can and should call upon Him.

The Voluspa reminds us that Odin along with Hoenir and Lodur gave life to Ask and Embla the original Teutonic human beings who initially were in a vegetative state existing as trees. Snorri Sturluson in the Gylfaginning of his Younger or Prose Edda adds the extra detail that Ask and Embla were found alongside the sea shore. This may be significant for Rig on His journeys finds the three women he mates with near the shore as well.

One significant factor with the three children which Rig sires is that they each have different complexions and hair colourings. The first child He sired was called Thrall. Thrall's mother was Edda-great grandmother, the wife of Ai-great grandfather. Thrall is described in Thorpe's translation as having "swarthy skin".  In Larrington's translation he is described as being "dark as flax". The second child He sired was called Karl. Karl's mother was Amma-grandmother, the wife of Afi-grandfather. In Larrington's translation he is described as being "red and rosy, with lively eyes". Thorpe's translation describes Karl as being a "ruddy redhead" and "its eyes twinkled". This could be an indication of light eyes. The third child was called Jarl. Jarl's mother was Modir-mother, the wife of Fadir-father. In Thorpe's translation it is said "Light was his hair, bright his cheeks, his eyes piercing as a young serpent's". Interestingly the characteristic of having 'serpents' eyes' is related to the clan of the Volsungs which was certainly sired by Odin, not Heimdall. Larrington in her translation says of Jarl "blond was his hair, bright his cheeks, piercing were his eyes like a young snake's."

These three children gave rise to the castes of Thrall, Farmer and Lord to use Larrington's terminology. In other words the castes of nobles, free peasants and servants. These hair or complexion colours may be represented roughly as white, red and black. These colours are strongly associated with the caste system of other Indo-European peoples and are reflected today in the flags of many Indo-European countries although blue is sometimes substituted for black. I believe that this is an unconscious manifestation of the Aryan Blood Memory or to use a Jungian term, the Racial Collective Unconscious.

However the Germanic caste system is not a true reflection of what many deem to be the original Aryan system. At some point in the pre-history of the Germanic peoples a distortion of the caste system occurred. Other Indo-European peoples such as the Celts, Latins, Indo-Aryans and Iranians had separate castes for the priests and warriors, who were nobles, and the farmers. Servants or slaves were not considered as part of the tripartite Aryan caste system. Even in India which technically has a four caste system the Sudras are not considered to be Aryan, only the first three castes. So something must have happened, unique to the Germanic peoples to have caused this shift. The caste of Thralls was introduced to replace a lost caste, the priestly one. Furthermore honour was only attached to the first two castes, those of the priests and nobles-warriors. In India the third caste of Vaisya who are largely merchants are looked down upon by the Aryan Brahmin and Ksatriya castes. I am not saying that this is morally right: I am merely stating a fact! Today people view the English merchant class-the Middle Class in a similar light.

We know from the history of the Middle Ages that in England and other parts of Germanic Europe that there was an ongoing power struggle between the church and the monarchy and I believe that this struggle which in a sense is still lingering on has its origins in pre-history at a time when the original two higher castes, priest and noble struggled for supremacy. Eventually in the Germanic world they were merged together to form one caste, the noble one which had two separate functions: religious and rulership. If we consider that the Indo-European pantheons are a reflection of the three original functions of sovereignity, war and production (see Professor Jean Haudry, The Indo-Europeans) then it is clear that sovereignity was originally vested in the priestly caste, represented by the very ancient Germanic God *Tiwaz. We see some evidence of this in the Eddas as Tyr was regarded as the upholder of justice and law, originally a function of the priestly caste. His power, authority and role were subsequently challenged by the emerging power of the noble or warrior caste represented by the God *Wodanaz who subsequently became the new All Father, a role that originally belonged to *Tiwaz whseo origins may be traced to pre-Germanic Proto-Indo-European times. There is a faint echo here of the original power struggle. The Gods may be divided into three functions, a caste system of sorts. These are priestly or sovereign, warrior and producer.

In later Germanic times there was some confusion in the role between Wodan and Tiw and even Thunor who is a God of the third function of fertility or production does have some characteristics that belong to the first and second functions.

It is interesting and significant that Caesar in the mid first century BCE made the remark:

"The customs of the Germans are very different from those of the Gauls. They have no druids to preside over religious matters, nor do they concern themselves with sacrifices."(The Gallic War, Book 6:21)

We know from history and from other writers that this statement is incorrect. The Germans did practice both human and animal sacrifice (See Tacitus' Germania and Adam of Bremen).  He is technically correct in that they did not have 'druids' as this was a priesthood specific to the Celtic peoples. What is clear though is that by the time Caesar wrote his book the pre-historic shift in the Germanic caste system had already happened making the Germanic priesthood a faint echo of that which it had once been.

The Rigsthula also indicates one more thing and that is the societies which we now call Germanic were not always racially homogenous as the differing racial characteristics of the three castes indicate. Clearly by the time that the Rigsthula had originally been orally formulated Germanic peoples through conquest and colonisation had already begun to mix with the peoples they had subjugated (the third caste). The same thing happened to the Celts and this is why there is such a wide variation in racial characteristics between so-called Celts who were originally a Nordic people like the Teutons.

Thus in summary any discussion of reviving the Germanic system must take into account that the Rigsthula does not represent the original Indo-Germanic system which is better reflected in the Celtic one. Caesar in the Sixth Book of The Gallic Wars refers to the Gallic three caste system but points out that honour was only accorded to the first two castes which were druids and knights; in other words the priestly and the noble castes. These were in my opinion Nordic in race.

It is an undeniable fact that the higher castes in Indo-Germanic societies were more likely to be Nordic as Nordic man is better fitted to rule rather than to serve. This is why greater honour was always given to the higher castes. The lowest caste was invariably mixed in race, composed of subjugated and often non-Nordic individuals.

"The racial unity of the Indo-European aristocracy was necessarily reinforced by endogamy. Its physical type was seen as a mark of superiority, the external sign of the *menos ('character'-Wotans Krieger's edit) which gives it life and of all good qualities. Pope Gregory the Great, looking at some Anglian prisoners, who had 'fair complexions, fine-cut feathers and beautiful hair' claimed, when he was told the name of their nation: 'That is appropriate, for they have angelic faces, and it is right that they should become joint-heirs with the angels in heaven." (The Indo-Europeans, Jean Haudry)

Despite Hollywood propaganda and awful films such as The 300 the ancient Persians were also a Nordic people:

"It was even felt to be a link (ie race-Wotans Krieger's edit) between Indo-European peoples who were strangers to one another, over and above linguistic difference (despite the fact that it is in terms of the latter that 'barbarian' is defined) and in spite of mutual conflicts. How otherwise, for example, can we explain the astonishing reference made by Aeschylus (Pers. 185f.) to Persia and Greece, locked in a war with one another, as 'sisters of the same blood.'?" (Haudry)


 

Saturday, 12 April 2014

The Cult of Woden and the Interpretatio Romana



There have been attempts by some scholars over the years, especially since the end of WWII to attempt to minimise the role and importance of Woden. Sometimes I feel this is not so much done out of legitimate and impartial scholarship but with the deliberate intention of proving an argument either through the use or misuse of evidence or the lack thereof.

An interesting book was published and translated into English in 2011 titled The Mercury-Woden Complex (original Der Merkur-Wodan Komplex) by an anonymous author called 'GardenStone'. Why he should not use his real name I do not know. It is interesting in the sense that it attempts to explore the Cult of Woden and the extent of its spread but I was rather disappointed by the author's approach. My feeling was that his intention was to 'prove' a particular viewpoint rather than to explore the issue with complete impartiality and detachment-a necessary prerequisite for a scholar. However do not let this put you off from buying the book as it contains a lot of interesting and useful information.

Tacitus in his Germania makes it very clear that Woden, who he calls 'Mercury' according to the Interpretatio Romana is the primary God of the Germanic peoples:

"As for gods, Mercury is the one they worship most, and on certain days they think it is right to propitiate him  even with human victims. Hercules and Mars they appease with lawful animals. Part of the Suebi sacrifice also to Isis;........" (Germania 9.1)

Naturally the Romans compared their classical pantheon with the peoples which they encountered, especially the Teutons and Celts but we must remember that exact comparisons cannot be made.

Caesar writing in the century prior to Tacitus also refers to the Gods of the Celtic Gauls using Roman nomenclature:

"The god they worship most of all is Mercury. There are many images of him, and they say that he is the inventor of all the arts and the director of ways and journeys; they believe that he has greatest power over the pursuit of profit and matters of trade. After him they worship Apollo, Mars, Jupiter, and Minerva." (The Gallic War Book 6, 17)

It is interesting that both the Gauls and Teutons held their equivalent of 'Mercury' to be their primary God.

GardenStone rightly or wrongly is rather scathing about the Interpretatio Romana in that ordinary common people decided for themselves which classical Gods their native Teutonic or Celtic deities resembled rather than scholars. However this is a presumption on his part and one which cannot be proven. He states that between 65 to 70 inscriptions have been found where Mercury has been linked to a native deity. He points out however that none of these inscriptions refer to Woden. He is in my opinion correct in assuming that the Romans equated many other Gods with Mercury not just Woden but this does not establish that the Mercury-Woden connection is in itself not justified.

Mercury like His Greek counterpart Hermes was a God who conducted the souls of the dead to the underworld. In other words He was a psychopomp. Woden does share this very same aspect. We are all familiar of course with Woden as the leader of the Wild Hunt. Two other features which Mercury and Woden share (which GardenStone acknowledges) is that both Gods received human sacrifice and were Gods of magic.

However in the classical pantheon Jupiter/Zeus was regarded as the father of the Gods and yet Thunor who the Eddas refer to as a son of Woden is equated with Jupiter/Zeus. Quite remarkably Saxo Grammaticus (1150-1220) in his The History of the Danes Books I-IX also points out this discrepancy:

"One gathers plainly from this very nomenclature of days that the persons who were honoured by our people were not the same as those the early Romans called Jupiter and Mercury, or those whom Greece and Italy accorded all the homage of superstition. What we call Thor's or Odin's day is termed by them Jove's or Mercury's day. If we accept that Thor is Jupiter and Odin Mercury, following the change of the days' designations, then it is clear proof that Jupiter was the son of Mercury, if we abide by the assertions of our countrymen, whose common belief is that Thor was the child of Odin. As the Romans hold to the opposite opinion that Mercury was born of Jupiter, it follows that if their claim is indisputed, we must realise that Thor and Jupiter, Odin and Mercury are different personages." (Book VI)

This is  a significant observation when one considers that Saxo like Snorri lived between the 12th and 13th centuries. The level of scholarship for that time must be commended. However he is overlooking one significant issue. The Scandinavians were wrong to assume that Thor was the son of Odin. This is a fairly childish way of viewing the Gods. We now know that the Cult of Woden or Odin penetrated Scandinavia well after the Cult of Thor or Thunor was established. Indeed in Norway it did not replace the Cult of Thor. The cult spread from Germany, quite possibly from the Upper Saxony/Thuringia region which some scholars such as Francis Owen (The Germanic People. Their Origin, Expansion & Culture) theorise was the centre from where the Single Grave-Corded Ware-Battle Axe culture spread from. This was of course a clearly Indo-Germanic material culture. My personal opinion is that this material culture also helped to spread the Aesir family of deities which eventually fused with the native Scandinavian Vanir.

Troy Southgate in his admirable Woden. Thoughts & Perspectives, Volume Four relates to us the tale of the spread of the Cult of Woden as initially told to us by Snorri Sturluson (1179-1241) in the Prologue to his Younger or Prose Edda. Snorri being a xtian would not or perhaps could not accept that the Gods of the Germanic peoples were actually divine entities and so he euhemerised them. In other words he claimed that they were human beings, albeit extremely clever ones who became deified over the course of time due to their achievements. The fact that both Snorri, an Icelander and Saxo, a Dane should both euhemerise the Gods in this way perhaps demonstrates that they were following a standard xtian tradition although euhemerism originated in Classical Greek times and was the invention of Euhemeros of Messene (circa 300 BCE).

I am not sure about Mr Southgate's intentions when he wrote the Foreward to his book but our Gods must never be thought of as just deified human beings. This is no basis for a religion or a folkish revival. However the story is interesting from the perspective that it may give us a clue as to how the Cult of Woden was introduced into northern Europe as part of (in my opinion) a wider material Indo-Germanic culture which had the features of the Battle Axe, single graves and Corded Ware pottery.


Monday, 7 April 2014

Tuisto, the God *Tiwaz



As I have commented several times before in previous articles *Tiwaz was originally the supreme deity of the Germanic peoples, to be usurped later by *Thunaraz and then *Wodanaz. Beyond the few stories within the Eddas there is little that we know about this God. However Tacitus has left us a clue in his Germania:

"In ancient lays, their only type of historical tradition, they celebrate Tuisto, a god brought forth from the earth. They attribute to him a son, Mannus, the source and founder of their people, and to Mannus three sons, from whose names those nearest the Ocean are called Ingvaeones, those in the middle Herminones, and the rest Istvaeones. Some people, inasmuch as antiquity gives free reign to speculation, maintain that there were more sons born from the god and hence more tribal designations- Marsi, Gambrivii, Suebi, and Vandilii- and that those names are genuine and ancient." (2.2)

Many scholars, such as Rudolf Simek associate Tuisto with Ymir:

"Tuisto seems to be related to the proto-giant> Ymir as the earth-born hermaphrodite ancestor of the race of man, and therefore the meaning of the name Tuisto as `hermaphrodite` is quite likely. The form of the name Tuisco (the actual manuscript reading) can also be traced back etymologically to the same basic meaning." (Dictionary of Northern Mythology)

`Tuisto` can  be connected to the Proto-Germanic root word *tvai which means `two`. The variant `Tuisco` may be reconstructed as *tiwisco and thus may be linked to *Tiwaz. John Lindow in his Handbook of Norse Mythology tends to be dismissive of the connection between Ymir and Tuisto as the former is seen as a negative entity whilst the latter was worshipped as a God and in this point I agree with him.  Jacob Grimm in his Teutonic Mythology Volume 1 makes a very clear association between *Tiwaz and Tuisto:

"If the earthborn Tuisco, the ancestral god of our nation, stands (as Zeuss p.72 has acutely suggested) for Tivisco, Tiusco, it shews on its very face the meaning of a divine heavenly being, leaving it an open question whether we will choose to understand it of Wuotan or any other god, barring always Tius himself, from whom it is derived."

*Tiwaz can be traced back to the Proto-Indo-European *deiwos, meaning `celestial being` and cognates of this deity may be found amongst other Indo-European peoples such as the Celts, Lithuanians, Latins and Indo-Aryans. This Sky Father was there at the very beginning of the Aryan and then later Germanic peoples. Even the later *Thunaraz and *Wodanaz shared certain aspects of His role as the Sky Father, the All Father.

Sunday, 6 April 2014

The Viking Raids: Heathen Germanic Vengeance



Following on from my article The Fanatical Heathenism of the Saxons and the Return to our Saxon Identity (29/3/14) I would like to build further on my argument that the Saxon Wars against the Franks were of a religious nature. At about the same time we can see the beginnings of the `Viking` raids. The first one recorded in England was in the year 793 at Lindisfarne off the coast of Northumberland in the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria. Lindisfarne is also called Holy Island and is today a very pleasant tourist attraction.

The Vikings were a sea faring people of North Germanic descent. They did not use this term to describe themselves as a folk. The noun `Viking` comes from the Old Norse fara í víking which means to `go a viking` or to `go on an expedition`. So originally Viking was something you did, not something you were. There was essentially no difference between the Anglo-Saxons and the Scandinavian Vikings genetically or culturally. We are really the same people. Prior to the Viking Age people thought of the Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians as Vikings or pirates. They too were sea raiders from northern Europe and like the Vikings were heathen, worshippers of Woden and Thunor or Odin and Thor. This is probably why the Danes were so successful in integrating with the Anglo-Saxons when they settled here. The Old English for `Viking` is wicing and appears in literature for the first time in the 9th century poem Widsith.

                              siþþan hy forwræcon wicinga cynn

                                       Wotans Krieger`s translation: "since they expelled the kin of the Vikings."

J.R. Clark Hall`s A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary translates wicingsceathe as `piracy`. Wic or vik means a bay, inlet or creek in Old English and Old Norse and some 19th century scholars conjectured that the term could mean `bay king` or `sea king`. Another explanation could be the ing of the wic or vik, ie people of the bay. Certainly it conveys the meaning of seafarers and this is something that was particular to the North Germanic coastal tribes such as the Angles, Jutes, Frisians and some of the Saxons. England as we know it today would not exist if this was not the case.

By the time that the Vikings had begun their raiding in the late 8th century most of the English tribes had been converted to xtianity and experienced the same terror that the Britons must have faced in 5th century. The Vikings raids were essentially a repetition of what happened in the 5th to the 6th centuries with the raids and colonisation of the heathen Anglo-Saxons. The Vikings rejuvenated the Germanic blood of the Anglo-Saxons and brought again the Old Gods to England.Traditionally it is said that the Vikings were motivated by the lust for loot and the desire for new land but there is an equally valid argument that this was a continuation of the religious wars which started with the Saxons not long before on the continent. The German Saxons maintained their heathen religion far longer than the Anglo-Saxons in England and the Vikings raids could be seen as revenge for the Anglo-Saxons` betrayal of their racial Gods. It is significant that many of these bloodthirsty raids were aimed at religious institutions such as churches, monastaries and abbeys. Of course these were rich pickings for gold, silver and precious jewels but this does not explain the reason for the butchery of the clergy. It was clearly vengeance as the prayer of the xtians of the time demonstrate:

"A furore Normannorum libera nos, Domine," which translates as "From the fury of the Northmen deliver us, O Lord."

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports this for the year 793:

 "In this year terrible portents appeared over Northumbria and sadly affrightened the inhabitants: there were exceptional flashes of lightning, and firey dragons were seen flying in the air. A great famine followed soon upon these signs, and a little after that in the same year on the ides of June the harrying of the heathen miserably destroyed God's church in Lindisfarne by rapine and slaughter."

Of the raid of Lindisfarne in 793 Simeon of Durham states:

 "And they came to the church of Lindisfarne, laid everything waste with grievous plundering, trampled the holy places with polluted feet, dug up the altars and seized all the treasures of the holy church. They killed some of the brothers; some they took away with them in fetters; many they drove out, naked and loaded with insults; and some they drowned in the sea."

Quite hypocritically the English monk Alcuin who served at Karl the Butcher`s court at Aachen whilst commenting upon this raid said:


 "It is some 350 years that we and our forefathers have inhabited this lovely land, and never before in Britain has such a terror appeared as this we have now suffered at the hands of the heathen. Nor was it thought possible that such an inroad from the sea could be made."

This Karl was the same bastard who butchered 4,500 Saxons at Verden, Niedersachsen in 782 because they refused to bend the knee before him and his jewish `saviour`. I do not think that the timing of these Viking raids was a mere coincidence, but vengeance for what the xtians did to the Danes` heathen Saxon brothers.

Clearly he had a very short memory for these were the tactics of the Anglo-Saxons also! The Gods of the English were once more honoured in those parts of England where the Danes settled. The wearing of Thunor`s Hammer once again became popular. This practice did not originate with the Vikings as I have demonstrated in previous articles but they certainly revived it.