Wednesday, 31 July 2013

Sol, the Ancient Germanic Sun Goddess

The Germanic Sun Goddess Sol is probably one of our oldest deities and yet little is spoken of Her in the Eddas. She was certainly counted as being one of the Aesir or more correctly Asynjur[feminine plural].
She is referred to as the sister of the moon who is masculine and the daughter of Mundilfaeri.

"Sol and Bil are reckoned among the Asyniur."[Gylfaginning, Younger Edda].

Sol is again listed amongst the Asynjur in Skaldskaparmal in the Younger Edda.

"Mundilfaeri he is called, the father of Moon and likewise of Sun; they must pass through the sky, every day to count the years of men"[Vafthrudnismal 23, Elder Edda]

However I do not think that the passages in the Eddas correctly report the origins of the Goddess Herself. We need to remember that both the Elder and Younger Eddas were set down to paper long after the xtianisation of the Germanic world and changes of belief occurred in the transition from the Bronze to the Iron Age. The elder deities, eg Tyr/Tiw were relegated to minor positions as `sons` of the All-Father Woden or at least that is how the xtian scribes presented it. Sol is far more ancient than the Eddas but let us see what else is recorded about Her:

"High said: `There was a person whose name was Mundilfaeri who had two children. They were so fair and beautiful that he called the one Moon and his daughter Sol[Sun], and gave her in marriage to a person called Glen. But the gods got angry at this arrogance and took the brother and sister and set them up in the sky; they made Sol drive the horses that drew the chariot of the sun which the gods had created, to illuminate the worlds, out of the molten particle that had flown out of the world of Muspell. The names of these horses are Arvak and Alsvinn. Under the shoulders of the horses the gods put two bellows to cool them, and in some sources it is called ironblast. Moon guides the course of the moon and controls its waxing and waning. He took two children from the earth called Bil and Hiuki as they were leaving a well called Byrgir, carrying between them on their shoulders a tub called Saeg; their carrying pole was called Simul. Their father`s name is Vidfinn. These children go with Moon, as can be seen from earth.`"[Gylfaginning, Younger Edda]

I have quoted the above passage in full because of it being the original source for our Jack and Jill English fairytale and this is a clear example of how ancient heathen lore has been preserved in our fairytales. Nothing is forever completely lost-most things can at least in part be recovered. The passage makes it clear that the personalities called Moon and Sol in the Eddas are not necessarily the deities themselves but their servants or representatives who have been named after them. Here we are also introduced to the myth of the Divine Twins, a common theme in Indo-European mythology which I hope to explore in a future article. It should be noted that the Divine Twins in Germanic and Indo-European mythology are usually in some way associated with horses and the horse is of course a solar symbol.

The fate of Sol is also alluded to in the passage from Gylfaginning:

"Then spoke Gangleri: `The sun moves fast, almost as if she was afraid, and she would not be able to go any faster if she was in terror of her death.` Then High replied: `It is not surprising that she goes at great speed, he comes close who is after her. And she has no escape except to run away.`Then spoke Gangleri: `Who is it that inflicts this unpleasantness on her?` High said: `It is two wolves, and the one that is going after her is called Skoll. She is afraid of him and he will catch her, and the one that is running ahead of her is called Hati Hrodvitnisson, and he is trying to catch the moon, and that will happen." 

A similar fate of course awaits Woden at Ragnarok but His spirit will be reborn in Widar the Avenger just as Sol will be reborn  in Her daughter. Interestingly later on in Gylfaginning the name of Her pursuing wolf is Fenrir, the very same one who will swallow Woden!

Contained in some translations of the Elder Edda is the Solarljoth or The Song of the Sun. It can certainly be found in Benjamin Thorpe`s translation. What makes this work so interesting is that it was clearly composed or set down by a xtian but in the transitional phase when xtianity was beginning to replace the old religion. It contains many heathen references and refers to Sol as being a Goddess. Clearly Her worship which was so ancient could not be easily eradicated. Also she was in the north a benign Goddess. How could even zealous xtians take a hard line with Her?

"The sun I saw, and it seemed to me as if I saw a glorious god: I bowed before her, for the last time, in the world of men."

What a glorious way to end one`s days on Midgarth!

There is a single reference to an alternative name of Sunna for this Goddess in Alvismal 17 in the Elder Edda[Thorpe`s translation]:

"Sol among men `tis called, but with the gods sunna...."

Correctly translating this name is important for there is a reference to Sunna in the Old High German Second Merseburg Charm:

"Phol and Wodan rode into the wood; the foreleg of Baldr`s horse was dislocated; then Sinthgunt and Sunna her sister, sang over it, then Friia and Volla, her sister, sang over it, then Wodan sang over it, for he could do that well: be it dislocation of bone, be it an ailment of blood, be it dislocation of the limbs: bone to bone, blood to blood, limb to limb, as if they were glued."

This charm dates back to the 10th century but the content is certainly older[see Rudolf Simek, Dictionary of Northern Mythology].

Of course we have the Rune Sol, which is the 11th in the Younger Futhork:

"Sol is the light of the lands; I bow to the doom of holiness."[Old Norwegian Rune Poem]
 "Sol is the shield of the clouds and shining glory and the life-long sorrow of ice."[Old Icelandic Rune Poem]

The Old English Rune Poem is heavily xtianised but I will include the relevant portion here for completeness:

"Sigel is by sea-men always hoped for when they fare away over the fishes bath until the brine-stallion they bring to land."

Clearly in the Viking Age this Goddess was still highly thought of but she reached her zenith of importance in the Bronze Age as can been seen from Scandinavian rock carvings from this period and the famous Trundholm Sun Chariot from Denmark.

"The association of the sun with a wheel is ancient in Scandinavia, and sun/wheel imagery is ubiquitous in the Nordic Bronze Age."[Long Branches Runes of the Younger Futhark, Ann Groa Sheffield]

Ann Groa Sheffield then goes on to relate to how high status women in the Bronze Age were buried with large bronze belt-discs. I highly recommend her book. It is one of the best on the Runes and one of the few to focus on the Younger Futhork.

Sol`s symbol apart from the Sol Rune is the four spoked Sunwheel and its many variants. It is of course closely associated with the Fylfot and it is likely that the curved Fylfot derived from this. Although there are other explanations for its origin-a subject I will elaborate on in a future article.

Sol or Sunna is remembered in the first day of the week-Sunday and in the Anglo-Saxon month of Solmonath.
Julius Ceasar in his De Bello Gallico makes reference to the ancient Germans worshipping the sun and moon:

"The customs of the Germans are very different from those of the Gauls. They have no druids to preside over religious matters, nor do they concern themselves with sacrifices. The only things which they count as gods are things they can see and which clearly benefit them, for example, the Sun, Vulcan[ie fire-my note], and the Moon. They have not even heard rumours of any others."[6.21]

This is of course a gross oversimplification and in many respects plain wrong! However it is interesting that certainly in the mid 1st century BCE the Sun was still acknowledged as a primary deity amongst the continental Germanic peoples.

Sheena McGrath makes an excellent job of exploring Indo-European Sun Goddesses including Sol in The Sun Goddess Myth Legend and History[1997] and also Sol is frequently discussed in her Asyniur Womens` Mysteries in the Northern Tradition[1997], both of which I recommend.

Tuesday, 30 July 2013

Frey, the Ar-God

This article should be read in conjunction with previous ones on a similar theme such as `Ar` as a Prefix in Aryan God/Goddess Names[4/8/12] and Aryanman/Airyaman/Ariomanus/Eremon/Irmin-the Divine Concept of Aryanness[17/8/12].
I have identified further evidence of the Aryan connection specifically in the Norse Sagas, Eddas and Rune Poems that repeats this same recurring theme.
The 10th Rune of the Younger Futhark and the Armanen Futhork is called Ar. This is cognate with the Elder/Common Germanic Futhark Jera which appears as the 12 Rune in that row. The Anglo-Saxon equivalent is Ger. It should be noted that the form of the Rune stave is different in all four Rune rows. The Younger and Armanen Runes show the closest affinity in form and Rune name. It should be born in mind that the Armanen is not an historical Rune row unlike the other three of course and it is historical rather than esoteric evidence that we are primarily but not exclusively examining here.
Ar and its Old English[Anglo-Saxon] equivalent of Ger are broadly cognate with the modern English `year` but it has the additional sense of meaning a fruitful year in relation to the harvest which our ancestors were deeply dependent upon. The term is very ancient and predates the Germanic, being traced right back to the Proto-Indo-European[PIE] *yer.

"[Ar] is the profit of all men and a good summer and a ripened field".[Icelandic Rune Poem].
 "[Ar] is the profit of men; I say that Frothi was generous."[Norwegian Rune Poem].
 "[Ger] is the hope of men, when god lets, holy king of heaven, the Earth give her bright fruits to the nobles and the needy."[Old English Rune Poem].

My readers must be aware that the Old English Rune Poem is heavily xtianised, much more so than the Icelandic and Norwegian so it must always be read in conjunction with the more archaic material. However it does give more detailed information and there are of course additional Runes contained within it so it is immensely valuable to us. The Abecedarium Nordmannicum also refers to this rune as `Ar`.

The prefix `Ar` readers will recall from the earlier articles has many different values and interpretations but they are all linked to the Aryan concept. Professor L. Austine Waddell in A Sumer Aryan Dictionary[1927] relates this prefix to the plough and the earth;  hence its association with agriculture.

Guido von List directly linked the Aryan concept with this Rune:

"ar, sun, primal fire, ar-yans, nobles, etc."
 "The `ar`, the `urfyr`[primal fire, god], the `sun`, the `light` will destroy spiritual as well as physical darkness, doubt, and uncertainty. In the sign of the Ar the Aryans-the sons of the sun-founded their law[Rita], the primal law of the Aryans, of which the earn, or eagle[Aar], is the hieroglyph."[The Secret of the Runes].

In Skaldskaparmal 75 Snorri Sturluson refers to the Vana God Frey as the `arguth`[ar-god]. He is the Aryan God!No wonder that this God was so well loved and honoured as the people`s very existence was dependent upon him. He was the God of the people, of the Arya, the God of the plough, the Ar.

Sunday, 28 July 2013

Euhemerism, the Aesir and the Aryan Urheimat

Snorri Sturluson in his Prose/Younger Edda seeks in the Prologue to euhemerise the Germanic Gods. Euhemerism is named after a 4th century BCE Greek mythographer who sought to explain classical mythology by attributing mythological personalities and events to actual historical figures and events, thus explaining away or rationalising them. To be fair to Snorri he only does this within the Prologue and does not allow his theorising to interfere with his composition of the rest of the text which often gives important details not to be found in the Poetic/Elder Edda.

Saxo Grammaticus in  The History of the Danes Books 1-IX also carries out the same practice of euhemerism and presents the Gods as mortal heroes and kings as does Snorri. It is often remarked by scholars that this is due to either the desire to xtianise what to them is heathen and thus distasteful or they may have felt that this was the only safe way to present the myths to avoid unwanted attention from the church. However one should bear in mind that both Snorri and Saxo would have been classically educated, familiar with classical mythology and the practice of euhemerism which they applied to the northern world.

Professor L. Austine Waddell also carries forward this practice in his works. He was responsible for a very contentious translation of the Eddas which he called the British Edda. His theory was that the language of the Eddas was not Icelandic or Old Norse but rather `British-Gothic` and that the epic which is a mish mash of Norse, Arthurian and Sumerian myth is the property of the Aryans who populated Britain from ancient Troy. The concept of a colonisation from Troy can be traced back to Geoffrey of Monmouth and other mediaeval chroniclers. For those who are used to the Icelandic Eddas the British Edda will hit you like one of Thunor`s thunderbolts! It is a shock to the system and it will take many readings for you to to begin to make sense of the epic so I would recommend that you read this work last and not make the mistake that I did and read it first because this will lead to utter confusion!

Waddell draws a link between Thor, Arthur[=Ar-Thor] and the Aryan pre-xtian Holy Grail. This all fits in with his wider theme of an ancient pan-Aryan civilisation that linked Sumeria, Egypt, India and northern Europe. This is why his writings are so valuable to us today.

Snorri has his Aesir originate from Troy which he places in Asia[more strictly Asia Minor]. One must remember that prior to 1871 when Heinrich Schliemann excavated Troy the city was generally regarded as a purely mythical rather than an historical place. Of course the ancient Greeks and Romans took it for granted that this was an historical place and the Trojan War was an historical event. Geoffrey of Monmouth lived from about 1100-1155 CE and wrote his Historia Regnum Britanniae [History of the Kings of Britain] in about 1136. In addition to the works of Bede, Nennius, Gildas and William of Malmesbury these writings are collectively termed the British Chronicles by Professor Waddell and deserve closer scrutiny by us. My belief is that they preserve ancient Aryan history from these islands. The fact that scholars pay little attention to Geoffrey`s writings these days may be more to do with political correctness than objective scholarship. Snorris lived from 1179-1241 CE. To what extent he was familiar with Geoffrey`s writings I do not know. If he wasn`t then perhaps we need to pay more attention to his Prologue as this could represent a portion of ancient Aryan history from a source common to both writers but now lost.

In the 19th century it was still fashionable for scholars of Indo-European studies to posit Asia as the Urheimat of the undivided ancient Aryans. These days the general consensus is that the homeland is to be located in eastern Europe but still today theories abound and they just do not know. Troy is located in Anatolia and Anatolia is yet another speculated location for the Urheimat.
"After that Odin went north to what is now Sweden. There was a king whose name was Gylfi, and when he learned of the arrival of the men of Asia[who were called Aesir], he went to meet them and offered Odin as much power in his realm es he wished himself."[Prologue, Prose/Younger Edda][My emphasis].

Also in the commentary to Saxo`s work by Hilda Ellis Davidson she states:

"The idea that Odin ruled in Byzantium was one of the learned theories concerning the origin of the pagan gods held by Icelandic scholars in Saxo`s time. The Aesir were said to have come to Scandinavia from Asia[Asia Minor],....."

Sunday, 14 July 2013

The Goat, an Ancient Indo-European Solar Symbol

"The Goat typified the reproductive powers of the sun, and is given to various solar and atmospheric gods. Thor, the Scandinavian god of thunder and lightning, is depicted in a chariot drawn by goats."[Ancient Pagan Symbols, Elisabeth Goldsmith, 1929]

"The high gods have the lion, bull, goat, eagle, falcon, symbols of solar creative energy. Thor, the god of thunder, is depicted in a chariot drawn by goats."[Goldsmith]

Thor`s goats were called Tanngnjostr[`Tooth-cracker`] and Tanngrisnr[`Tooth-gnasher`]. It is not only the Germanic Thunder God whose chariot was pulled by goats:

"Perkunas. Lithuanian. The thunder god, the equivalent in LITHUANIA of PERKONS, PERKONIS, PERUN and PYERUN. Perkunas was perceived as a vigorous red-bearded man brandishing an axe who was drawn rattling, across the sky in a chariot drawn by a billy goat. "[European Myth & Legend, Mike Dixon-Kennedy, 1997]

In the case of Indra His chariot was pulled not by goats but by deer. However both animals appear to be associated closely with each other and the deer is likewise a solar animal. Both are horned animals and horns are often associated with Sun Gods and solar heroes. With the onset of xtian dominance from the early Middle Ages the head of the goat became a symbol of Lucifer-confused with the xtian and semitic `devil`.
Lucifer we should recall is an ancient solar deity, his name meaning `light` from the Latin lucis, the genetive of lux-`light`.

In the Eddas Thor is known to have used His goats as food and then revived them in the morning by consecrating their bones which were carefully laid on their skins with His hammer. Rudolf Simek[Northern Mythology] suggests that there is a link between this and the boar, Saehrimnir which likewise is eaten everday in Walhalla and then revived. There could be echoes of sacrificial rites connected to ancient shamanic practices in these myths.

I have always felt a strong connection with Thunor/Donar. My mother`s maiden name was Bock which is German for `he-goat`. In times past this surname became associated with houses that bore the sign of the goat, which could indicate an affiliation with and service to the German Thunder God, Donar.
My mother told me that the Harz mountains where she came from experienced very loud thunder storms and there is a whole body of lore associated with this. However instead of associating thunder and lightning with Donar like our post-conversion ancestors she instead associated it with giants. This is an interesting concept as Thor in the Eddas is frequently found combating giants and the thunder is reckoned to be an echo of these struggles.

Sunday, 7 July 2013

Thunor`s Fiery Axe

"Se thunor hit thryscedh mid thaere fyrenan aecxe."[Dialogue of Solomon and Saturn]

Translated from Old English into Modern English the above quotation reads "Thunor threshes with his fiery axe". This passage is referred to in Jacob Grimm`s Teutonic Mythology Volume 1 and Walter Keating Kelly`s Curiosities of Indo-European Tradition and Folklore [a book which I highly recommend]. It is a passage that I have quoted before within articles on my blogs as it is probably the oldest reference to the Thunder God in Anglo-Saxon literature.
Some may argue that this passage simply refers to the xtian god`s use of thunder as a weapon with which to smite the `Devil` and this is a valid point. However thunder is one of the main attributes of the primary deity of the Indo-Europeans such As Zeus, Jupiter, Thor/Thunor/Donar and Indra and other peoples too.

What seals the bargain for me is that Thunor or thunder is referred to as wielding an axe which my readers will be aware is the original  weapon of the Indo-European Thunder God. Stylistically the hammer developed from the axe and it is the axe more than the hammer that was the favourite weapon and tool of our Germanic and Indo-European ancestors. It was both a symbol of the supreme Sky God and of royal authority.

I am reminded of the Bush Barrow stone mace which is regarded as part of the regalia of the King who doubtless governed from Stonehenge as being part of his royal seat. Some have likened it to the Lightning Sceptre of  Agamemnon, the King of Mycenae. However the Bush Barrow mace and phase III of Stonehenge predate Mycenae by at least 500 years. So any connection between them must be from a common Indo-European shared inheritance.

"A true explanation has to lie in the foundations of Indo-European cosmology, which everywhere posited a thunder-and-lightning god not unlike the well-attested Thor of Norse mythology."[Stonehenge City. A Reconstruction, Leon Stover, 2003]

From time to time I still see misinformed people expressing the view that Stonehenge was not built by Indo-Europeans. Now they may be right about Stonehenge Phase I but not Phases II and III, the last phase being the product of the distinctively Indo-European Wessex`Warrior culture. This should cause us to view the megaliths in a new sight.

Three excellent books which discuss the Indo-European aspect of Stonehenge are:

Stonehenge of the Kings. A People Appear, Patrick Crampton, 1967
Stonehenge and the Origins of Western Culture[also known as Stonehenge. The Indo-European Inheritance, Bruce Kraig and Leon Stover, 1979
Stonehenge City. A Reconstruction, Leon Stover, 2003

The first two books are out of print but the second one is still very widely available. 

The hammer as I have said developed from the axe and stylistically it is very similar apart from the Icelandic Foss Wolfs Hammer which is most certainly hammer shaped. Outside of Scandinavia, England and the very northern part of Germany I am not aware of any archaeological discoveries of Thor`s Hammer pendants unless they were left behind by Vikings in other countries. It does not appear to be a symbol which was commonly worn by the Germanic peoples except in the late 8th century CE onwards and probably as a Scandinavian reaction to creeping xtianisation of the North. That of course does not mean that it did not exist in the mythology of the North or that it was not used for cultic practice. Scholars theorise that the idea for wearing hammer amulets was a conscious reaction against the cross wearing xtians.

However the above argument is of course a simplification. We do know of Thunor`s hammers from Anglo-Saxon Kent in the 6th century CE prior to the emergence of the Vikings into recorded history. One such example is the Gilton hammer which was found with spear pendants, no doubt intended to be amulets signifying Woden`s spear, Gungnir.  A closer examination of the Gilton hammer causes me to question if it is a hammer or a long handled axe.

Whilst Thor`s Hammer amulets are a relatively late development axe amulets are found all over northern Europe, many marked with lightning symbols such as circles or dots in circles, possibly signifying hail stones, an attribute of a good old thunder storm. These axe amulets still persist right into the Viking era and amongst the Slavs, Balts and Celts this was the primary symbol of the Thunder God and continued to be so.

Therefore I find it significant that the anonymous author of the Dialogue of Solomon and Saturn should refer to Thunor as wielding an axe and not a hammer. I believe that this is how our Anglo-Saxon ancestors viewed the thunder weapon of Thunor.

"It is well known in England, and also in Germany, that no witch can step over a besom laid along the threshold of the house door on the inside. She will kick it or push it aside before she can enter your house, and by this token you may know her for what she is. An axe[Thor`s weapon] and a broom are laid crosswise on the innerside of the threshold over which the nurse has to step when she goes out with an infant to have it christened. This is done that the babe may be safe from all the devices of the powers of evil."[Kelly]

As an aside my readers may be aware that baptism, that is sprinkling on the forehead of infants with water was an ancient Germanic pre-xtian custom and like many of our ancient ways it was co-opted into xtian practice.

"As Indra  used to milk the cloud cows and churn the milk lakes and fountains with the thunderbolt, so did Thor. The German god`s fiery weapon was often represented as an axe, and hence it is a customary thing with witches to draw milk from the handle of an axe stuck in a doorpost."[Kelly]

Clearly Thunor`s axe as a concept continued to linger in Anglo-Saxon and German folklore long after the forced conversion of our ancestors as the above references establish but the axe was also an important cultic object. According to HR Ellis Davidson the famous Mammen Axe from 10th century CE Mammen in Denmark was a ceremonial axe and the top of the axe features a:

 "face with staring eyes and beard". Apparently this was a "method of representing the thunder god. The serpent on the blade was associated with Thor. Thor`s symbol in the Viking Age was both an axe and a hammer".[Scandinavian Mythology]

Rudolf Simek in his Dictionary of Northern Mythology states:

"In northern Europe a cult of axes, in which axes unsuitable for practical use played an important role, is evident and is supported by archaeological finds dating later than the Neolithic Age. In the Bronze Age numerous rock carvings, and also the little bronze figure from Grevensvaenge, indicate a widespread cult of axes which should probably be understood as a fertility cult, as the phallic figures on the rock pictures suggest. Miniature axes as amulets are also documented since the late Iron Age and then again in the Viking Age."

And again he states:

"The great age of the Germanic axe-cult, the relationship with the Cretan axe-cult and the parallels to the lightning weapons of the non-Germanic gods, such as Indra`s and Hercules` clubs or Sucellos the Gaul`s hammer all suggest an Indo-Germanic origin of the various forms of the axe."

Saturday, 6 July 2013

Britannia, Aryan Tutelary Goddess of the British Isles

As a child I was often fascinated by the imagery on old English coins and in particular the figure of Britannia on pennies, ha`pennies and farthings. This imagery continued with decimalisation in the early 1970s.
It is commonly believed that the concept of Britannia as a tutelary Goddess began with the Roman invasion but this is not the case. Although she is equated to the Roman Goddess Minerva Her history and origins precede the Romans.
Professor L. Austine Waddell in his remarkable and fascinating The Phoenician Origins of Britons, Scots and Anglo-Saxons Discovered by Phoenician and Sumerian Inscriptions in Britain by Pre-Roman Briton Coins[1924] makes it very clear that She originated with the earliest Aryan invaders of the British Isles. In Professor Waddell`s works he establishes that the Phoenicians  like the Sumerians and the founders of Egyptian civilisation were originally Aryans. They did of course rule over other peoples, namely Semites who later became associated with the term Phoenician but originally they or their leaders were Aryan.
Professor Waddell was also one of the first scholars to recognise the Hittites to be Aryan. This is today now commonly accepted but this was not so in the 1920s. Modern science is beginning to validate this great man`s theories.
Professor Waddell identifies ancient Phoenician coins from Lycaonia in the 3rd century CE  that also bear the image of this deity but bearing a cornucopia rather than a trident. Some of the coins also feature a shield with an equilateral Sun Cross, marking Her to be a solar deity.

"These coins, with others of the same type elsewhere, are of immense historical importance for recovering the lost history of the Britons in Britain and in their earlier homeland, as they now disclose the hitherto unknown origin of the modern British marine tutelary `Britannia`, and prove her to be of Hitto-Phoenician origin."[Waddell] 

Professor Waddell draws a link between the ancient ruling Aryan clan, the Barats and the name of Britain and hence of this Goddess. Studies of Her portrait show Her to be both graceful and beautiful, a notable Aryan characteristic.

"Usually the head only of this goddess is figured on Phoenician coins, and it is a fine Aryan and non-Semitic type; see for example the Phoenician `Barat` coin from Carthage, and Phoenician coins generally. In these coins of Lycaonia the general resemblance to Britannia will be noticed-Britannia hitherto being supposed to have been first invented by the early Romans in Britain in the 2nd century A.D. in practically the identical form still surviving on our modern British penny."[Waddell]

Britannia or more correctly in this context Barat is featured on the Lycaonian coins as seated on a chair of a ship amidst the waves. In some coins She holds a cornucopia and in others possibly a sceptre or a cross. In Her other hand She holds the tiller of a rudder. The shield beside Her chair features the Sun Cross, likened to a St. George Cross within a Sun Disc. On modern pre- and post-decimal coins this cross is now the eight spoked Union Flag. The eight spokes like the four are significant and relate to cardinal and ordinal directions and the wheel of the year. Some shields portray instead the rayed sun so the solar implications for Her cult are obvious.

"Her proper name is now disclosed by the Vedic hymns of the Eastern branch of the Aryan Barats to have been Barati, meaning `Belonging to the Barats.` She is also called therein `Brihad-the Divine`[Brihad-diva]..."[Waddell]

Britannia`s association with the trident draws a link with the Roman Neptune or the Greek Poseidon who many will know was the founder and tutelary deity of Atlantis.

"In these Vedic hymns all the attributes of Britannia are accounted for; her tutelarship of the waters and of ships, her lighthouse on the sea, her Neptune trident[as well as the origin of Neptune himself and his name], her helmet and shield, her Cross on the shield as well as the cornucopia, which she sometimes bears upon the Phoenician and Greco-Roman coins, taking the place of the corn-stalk on the Briton coins. "[Waddell]

Rige Veda 2.35  is devoted to the `Son of Waters` who the Indo-Aryans called Napat. Napat may be the origin of Neptune.

"The Son of Waters, gathering strength in waters, shines for his worshipper to give him treasures."[Rig Veda 2.35.8]

Often deities who were originally female were subsequently replaced by male ones. An obvious example from Germanic mythology is the Nerthus referred to in Tacitus` Germania, worshipped by the Angles and six other tribes in northern Germania. Later Njord became prominent amongst the Scandinavian peoples and the root of Njord is to be found in Nerthus. Some speculate that they simply formed a divine pair as did their offspring Frey and Freyja.

"In the Vedic hmns she is called `The Great Mother[Mahi] and `Holy Lady of the Waters` and is hailed as `First-made mother` in a hymn to her son `Napat the son of the waters` who has a horse[thus disclosing the remote Aryan origin of the name and personality of the old Sea-god, Neptune, and his horses, and accounting for Neptune`s trident in her hands]. She is a `Fire-Priestess` and `shows the light`[thus accounting for the Lighthouse on the older British coins with Britannia]. She is personified Fire and sits upon the sacred Fire[thus accounting for the St. George`s Cross which, we shall find later, symbolizes Fire of the Sun]. She is associated with the twin horsemen of the Sun[Aswin or Dioscorides], represented on the British coins, and coins of Syracuse[an ancient Phoenician colony] etc."[Waddell]

The concept of fire on or in water reminds me of Woden`s eye[the sun] being hidden in the waters of Mimir`s well. Professor Waddell also finds a connection between Barati and Bairthy, the Egyptian Goddess of the Water. Their functions are identical.

"Thus the tutelary Bairthy of the Ancient Egyptians and Assyrio-Babylonians appears to have been designated by them as `The Warrior Water-goddess of the Sailor Phoenicians of the Land of the Fire-drill cult."[Waddell]
A link may also be drawn between Neptune and the Celtic sea-God Manannan mac Lir who also was associated with horses, an Aryan totemic symbol. He is the tutelary deity of the Isle of Man whose flag consists of a three-legged triskelion, a clear solar symbol.

"The Poseidon of the Tuatha De Danann Pantheon was called Lir, but we hear little of him in comparison with his famous son, Manannan, the greatest and most popular of his many children."[The Mythology of the British Islands, Charles Squire]

Barati was also the tutelary Goddess of Crete, Brihad-the-Divine, the divine daughter of Phoinix, the King of Phoenicia, thus demonstrating the Aryan origin of Cretan civilisation via the Aryo-Phoenicians.
There may also be an association with the Irish Goddess Brigid, the daughter of The Dagda of the Tuatha De Danann. She also was a solar deity as evidenced by the rather interesting Swastika-like Solar Cross associated with Her.