"Proto-Indo-Europeans believed that they lived under a stone vault, that the stone hills and mountains rose to the sky, or that stone axes fell out of the sky, ie as thunder-stones[e.g. Lithuanian Perkuno akmuo `thunder-stone`[lit. `Perkunas` stone`, where Perkunas is the god of thunder]."[Mallory, Adams]We need to remember that not only was the axe an earlier form of the hammer as a thunder weapon and as a weapon used in battle but it was of course originally of stone. The Aryans on their migrations and conquests throughout Europe and the Near East still carried stone battle axes even during the Bronze Age. So the axe, in particular the stone axe is the original weapon of the Thunder God and sacred to the Aryans. Amongst the Teutons and some of the Celts the axe eventually transformed into a hammer which people now more generally associate with Thunor/Thor/Donar. Sucellos the Gallic Thunder God is also depicted as carrying a hammer. Although the Finns speak a Finno-Ugric language they are predominately a Nordic people. Their Thunder God is known as Ukko and He too carried an axe or a hammer. It is likely that this deity was influenced by the Indo-European Thunder God of the nearby Balts. Amongst the Finno-Ugric Estonians He is called Uko. There may be an association of Ukko/Uku with Perkele/Peko, a Finnish and Estonian God of the crops. Again my readers should note the etymological similarity with *Perkunos. The original Proto-Germanic name for the Thunder God is *Thunraz. From this we derive the Old English Thunor, the Old High German Thonar or Donar and the Old Norse Thorr. This article should also be read in conjunction with my artcle from 12/8/12 *Perkunos-the Original Name of the Northern PIE Thunder God.
Sunday, 14 April 2013
All Indo-European mythological pantheons include a Thunder God but it is amongst the North-West Indo-Europeans that there is a common unity in terms of the form that the God takes and the etymology of His name. The reconstructed form of his name in Proto-Indo-European[PIE] is *Perkunos.[The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World by J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams]. From *Perkunos we derive Perkonis[Prussian], Perkunis[Lithuanian], Perkons[Latvian], Perunu[Old Russian], Pyerun[Russian], Piorun[Polish], Perun[Czech] and Fjorgyn[the mother of Thor], so this deity is most clearly expressed as a unified entity amongst the Germanic, Baltic and Slavic peoples. There may also be a link to the Sanskrit Parjanya but scholars are divided over this. Parjanya is in fact a rain God in the Vedas but of course thunder does bring rain! When we look more closely at the first part of *Perk-unos we find some most interesting associations. In PIE `oak` is *perkus. Of course the oak tree is sacred to the Thunder God and thus more susceptible to lightning strikes due to the tallness and moisture content of the tree. The prefix *per has the meaning of `strike` and of course this is what He does with his axe/hammer/club. Also the PIE term for `axe` is *pelekus, not very different from *per! The axe of course was Thunor`s original lightning weapon and indeed this feature was retained by the Baltic and Slavic versions of Thunor. Amongst the Balts and Slavs He also has a red beard and His vehicle of choice is the chariot drawn by a billy goat.
Friday, 12 April 2013
One still sees the nonsense printed in even modern history books about the arrival of the Celts into the British Isles around 500BCE. Historians now know that this is not the case and posit the theory that they arrived from 2000BCE onwards. Likewise the Germanic invasions via the Anglo-Saxons are traditionally ascribed to the year 449CE. Now whilst I do not doubt that this historic event happened we now know that Germanic people resided in Britain centuries, possibly millenia before that date. Indeed English may be much more archaic than originally thought and occupy a separate sub-group of Germanic:
"The ... analysis reveals a Scandinavian influence on English and apparently a pre-Scandinavian archaic component in Old English. All Germanic lexica spoken today appear to converge in the network on an ancestral Common Germanic lexicon spoken at an unknown time, but constrained to before AD350 and probably after 3600BC."[Forster et al, 2006]Indeed it is considered that Old English may be as archaic as the split between Goidelic and Brythonic Celtic.[Dyen et all, 1992] Conservative estimates place this split occuring at least as far back as 900BCE, probably earlier. It is of course quite possible that other forms of Indo-European were spoken in the British Isles before the coming of the Celtic and Germanic peoples, particularly if we accept that Indo-Europeans have been present in these island for over 4,000 years. Indeed it is possible that Proto-Indo-Europeans-undivided Aryans colonised Britain in the Neolithic before the split of Indo-European into different language groups. Please see my articles from 24/6/12 and 11/4/13, titled The Ancient Presence of the Germanic Peoples in England and The Belgae and the Ancient Colonisation of England. What is significant is that Britain and Ireland share a common genetic basis along with the rest of North-West Europe and that is the haplotype R1b, a sister to R1a. Both groups were responsible for the spread of Indo-European languages across Europe west and east. It is in my opinion fruitless to argue which of these two haplotypes were responsible for the origin of Indo-European as they both share a common racial stock in their mother haplotype R1. For years people have argued that the Celts did or did not build Stonehenge. Whether that particular group did or didn`t is irrelevant to me as we know that Stonehenge in its recogniseable and finished form-Phase III that is, was most definitely built by Indo-Europeans of the `Wessex Culture`, famed for its corded ware style of pottery, stone and bronze battle axes, burial mounds and single inhumation burials. What is needed now is for proud Anglo-Saxons to reclaim their heritage and start to debunk the lies spread by political whores that the English are a `bastard` or a `mongrel race`, terms which if they had been used by politicians or television producers about any other ethnic group would have resulted in criminal prosecutions.
Thursday, 11 April 2013
English history or the beginnings of English history in Britain is customarily ascribed to the year 449CE according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles:
Then came the men of three Germanic tribes: Old Saxons; Angles and Jutes. Of the Jutes came the people of Kent and the Isle of Wight; that is the tribe which now lives on Wight, and that race among the West-Saxons which men even now called Jutish. Of the Old Saxons came the East-Saxons, South-Saxons and West-Saxons. Of the Angles-the country they left has stood empty between the Jutes and Saxons-come the East-Anglians, Middle-Anglians, Mercians and all the Northumbrians."Bede in the 8th century CE wrote in his A History of the English Church and People:
"In the year of our Lord 449, Martian became Emperor with Valentinian, the forty-sixth in succession from Augustus, ruling for seven years. In his time the Angles or Saxons came to Britain at the invitation of King Vortigern in three long-ships, and were granted lands in the eastern part of the island on condition that they protected the country: nevertheless, their real intention was to subdue it."Then a bit further on:
"These new-comers were from the three most formidable races of Germany, the Saxons, Angles, and Jutes. From the Jutes are descended the people of Kent and the Isle of Wight and those in the province of the West Saxons opposite the Isle of Wight who are called Jutes to this day. From the Saxons-that is, the country known as Angulus, which lies between the provinces of the Jutes and Saxons and is said to remain unpopulated to this day-are descended the East and Middle Angles, the Mercians, all the Northumbrian stock[that is, those peoples living north of the river Humber], and the other English peoples."Now I am not disputing any of this but it has become clear that this event did not mark the beginnings of Germanic colonisation in Britain. That process began much earlier so that at the time of the Roman conquest there was already a Germanic presence in England. One of the best arguments for this theory is contained in Part 3 of Stephen Oppenheimer`s The Origins of the British. This is an excellent and very thoroughly researched book which I recommend to anyone interested in the origins of the English and British peoples. Aryanists and Anglo-Saxonists will take heart in his theory of a much earlier Germanic and Indo-European presence in the British Isles than traditionally historians would admit. The most negative opinions of the work are usually by people who have never read the book in its entirety or have not properly understood it. Oppenheimer analyses the structure and lexicon of Old English and comes to the conclusion that it is not merely an offshoot of the West Germanic or Ingaevonic language group. Its genesis is more complicated than that. It does indeed share a close similarity in structure with Old Frisian but its lexicon is greatly affected by North Germanic-Old Norse. Now my readers must not jump to the conclusion that this is the result of the Viking invasions as these took place centuries after the advent of the Anglo-Saxons. So any Scandinavian influence on Old English would have had to have taken place before the Saxon invasions but this does not make sense as before these invasions there was no English presence in Britain-or so it would seem. Thus Oppenheimer theorises that there was indeed a Germanic language and thus a Germanic presence already here in England by the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasions. Gildas in his De Exidio et Conquestu Britanniae[On the Ruin and Conquest of Britain] in the 6th century CE wrote:
"A pack of cubs burst forth from the lair of the barbarian lioness, coming in three keels, as they call war-ships in their language....."As a Briton and as a cleric Gildas was clearly much more emotional about the advent of the Anglo-Saxons than either Bede or the compilers of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles! `Keel` is generally reckoned to be a Scandinavian term rather than a typical Old English one. Indeed not only was there a Germanic language and thus a Germanic people present in England before the Roman and Anglo-Saxon invasions but Oppenheimer suggests that Old English has such a deep antiquity that it should be classed as a fourth Germanic language group outside of North, West and East Germanic. Thus English may be descended directly neither from Old Saxon nor Old Norse. Indeed Oppenheimer states:
".....but starts to look as if it could include some of the period of the Later Neolithic and Bronze Age, when, as we have seen, there do appear to be genetic and cultural influences coming into Eastern England from southern Scandinavia and North-West Europe."Oppenhimer spends a lot of time discussing the Belgic peoples of the Lowlands and how in fact Caesar did not define them as being Celts. You will recall that Caesar in his De Bello Gallico[The Gallic War] divides Gaul into three parts:
"The whole of Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, the Aquitani another, and the third a people who in their own language are called `Celts`, but in ours, `Gauls`."The Belgae were not Celtic speaking and on the continent they included a number of Germanic tribes amongst them. Oppenheimer states that the Belgae probably spoke a Germanic language,
"perhaps ancestral to Dutch or Frisian which they carried to England even before the Roman invasions."It is significant that the area of England which the Belgae occupied is the very same area first occupied by the Anglo-Saxons. Of the continental Belgae Oppenheimer states:
"While several personal and tribal names in Belgica described by Caesar have a clearly Gaulish derivation, a larger proportion do not, and some may have belonged to the Germanic branch of Indo-European."Indeed according to Caesar:
"When Caesar asked the two convoys about the Belgic states-how many were under arms, and what was their strength in war-he discovered that most of the Belgae were of German extraction, and had long ago crossed the Rhine and settled on the western side because of the fertility of the soil. They had forced out the Gauls who dwelt there."Caesar also identifies the Germanic Cimbri and Teutones as settlers in Belgica:
"The Aduatuci were descendants of those Cimbri and Teutoni who,when marching into our Province and Italy, had left all the cattle and baggage they could not drive or carry with them on this side of the Rhine:....What is amazing is the lack of Celtic place names in England. So according to Oppenheimer one must assume either the Britons were entirely exterminated by the Anglo-Saxons or that there was already a Germanic language being spoken in England in the areas initially invaded by the Anglo-Saxons. Looking also at the English language it has always intrigued me that there are less than two dozen Celtic loan words in the language and that these stem from places that were known to be Celtic such as Cornwall and Cumbria[Corn-Wealas and Cymru]. Yet there are far more Latin and Norman loan words than this. PC archaeologists and historians who discredit the Germanic invasion or wipe-out theories cannot adequately explain this. There is no historic precedent for this. We also know of course that many of the so-called `Roman` soldiers were in fact Germanic mercenaries and this Germanic presence has been known by scholars for years. However the Germanic genetic, cultural and language penetration into southern and eastern England has a much deeper antiquity than this, something which Woden`s Folk was already aware of before the publication of this book in 2006. Even Tolkien was aware of this and it is reflected in his mythology. When the Germanic peoples invaded England in the period from 449CE to the Danish conquests they were in fact RETURNING to England. Thus the English whether you take the 449CE date or project it back into the Neolithic or Bronze Age are in fact indigenous to Britain if the UN definition is anything to go by. Indeed we are probably one of the very oldest of Indigenous peoples:
"Indigenous communities, peoples and nations are those which, having a historical continuity with pre-invasion and pre-colonial societies that developed on their territories, consider themselves distinct from other sectors of the societies now prevailing in those territories, or parts of them. They form at present non-dominant sectors of society and are determined to preserve, develop, and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories, and their ethnic identity, as the basis of their continued existence as peoples, in accordance with their own cultural patterns, social institutions and legal systems."
Tuesday, 9 April 2013
A number of years ago along with a folk-comrade I visited Roseberry Topping, a hill 1,049 feet high in the North York Moors. The summit has a distinctive half-cone shape with a jagged cliff. This hill was once known as Othenesberg, first attested in written records in 1119. The scarring of the hill is the result of the extraction of minerals. To the Viking settlers who named it it must have been and still is an impressive site on a flat landscape. The Vikings were not the only people to be attracted to this mount as a Bronze Age hoard was discovered on the slopes of the hill and is now located in Sheffield City Museum. This makes me wonder whether the hill was also sacred to the Aryan peoples who lived in the vicinity during the Bronze Age and subsequent Iron Age. I attach an image of the afore-mentioned hoard. Othenesberg-Odin`s Rock or Mount has parallels with Anglo-Saxon examples such as Wodnesberg in East Kent, now called Woodnesborough. Apparently over the years the hill gradually changed name from Othenesberg via Othensberg, Ohenseberg, Ounsberry, Ouseberry to finally Roseberry Topping, `Topping` being a local dialectical term for `hill` or `top`. So the current name bears little resemblance to its original which causes me to question how many other such sacred Anglo-Saxon or Anglo-Scandinavian place names or features are buried by this process of gradual or sudden change of name? In continental Germania and Scandinavia it was common practice for sacred hills and mountains to be named after Odin or Wotan. On arriving at the summit of the hill we carried out some Wodenist rites to rededicate the hill to Woden. We were shocked at the time though to discover some jewish graffiti on part of the rock surface. I hope that the elements have now washed that away.